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How does government regulation impact the metals and mining sector?
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Go here to learn more about PlumX Metrics. Exaggerating unintended effects? Competing narratives on the impact of conflict minerals regulation. Innovation in an unfavorable context: Local mining suppliers in Peru. Does mineral development provide a basis for sustainable economic development? The correlation analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between metal concentration in water and the influence of physico-chemical parameters of water on metal concentrations.
The pH and TDS are a major concern in this study since they are the vital factors in metal solubility and control metals speciation and thus their distribution within dissolved fractions [ 38 ]. In this study, concentrations of As and Cd were found to be negatively correlated Table 5. However, the influence of pH on metal solubility is not obvious as the pH values in the present study ranged from 5.
Several factors might have caused this increase; notably among them are most of the ASGM activities such as washing of ores and amalgamation of gold ores with mercury takes place at these sites, remaining inputs are from improper disposal of mine tailings from the tailings dam via the emergency spill way [ 40 ].
The socio-economic study focused on assessing the perceptions of residents of water quality in their area due to gold mining. Answers to the questions asked during the socioeconomic survey have been presented in Table 1 above.
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Education is a key determinant of household formation, structure, socio-economic status and value judgment in every endeavor. The few residents with tertiary education 8.
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This is due to the fact that mining operations require a highly skilled labor force [ 40 ]. The resulting effect of this is the upsurge in the artisanal small-scale mining which requires no skills. Out of the residents interviewed in the study area, This is because most mining companies employ large numbers of expatriate staff to fill positions which could be occupied by Ghanaians.
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This observation is consistent with studies made by [ 41 , 42 ]. For A stepwise logistic regression was used to estimate explanatory factors influencing the perception of residents on the socio-economic effects of mining in the study area. The responses to questions asked in the survey as well as the categories to which the question belong in logistic regression analysis have been summarized in Table 6 below.
These three predictors are education, household income and familiarity with environmental problems. Out of the five education-level groups, those with no formal education were about six times more likely to consider water bodies in the Tarkwa municipality as highly polluted than the Junior and Senior High graduates taken as reference category. This result is not consistent with the assertion that the more highly educated people are more likely to show concern to environment issues [ 41 ].
The second predictor was household income levels. This observation is consistent with the findings of [ 41 ]. The third predictor was familiarity with environmental problems associated with mining. The few respondents who believed that the water quality had stayed the same or deteriorated compared to the period before the commencement of mining activity in the study area were six times more likely to perceive the water as being highly polluted than those who said that the quality water had improved since mining operation took place in the area.
That is, making heavy metal contamination of surface waters in Tarkwa a serious issue which requires an urgent attention [ 43 ]. The outcome of the perception study agrees with the chemical data in Table 2 above, indicating strong pollution levels of water bodies in the study area. There was a highly significant correlation between the three predictors and the perception model. This study evaluated the impact of gold mining in Tarkwa mining area from both natural science and socioeconomic perspectives.
The natural science study results revealed that pollution of water bodies in the area was attributable to uncontrolled cyanide spillages and acid mine drainage. These results agreed with the observations resulting from the socioeconomic survey. It was obvious from both the natural and social science studies that residents of the Tarkwa mining area perceived water bodies to be highly polluted due to mining. Though, mining is perceived to improve the general economic well-being of residents, the economic situation of the people of Tarkwa mining area is different as surface mining has deprived them of means of improving their livelihood through farming.
This paper is a study carried by a team of researchers conducting an integrated assessment of small-scale gold mining in Ghana. The authors would like to thank the Management of Centre for Environmental Impact Analysis for providing funding for the field work and Graham Sustainability Institute at the University of Michigan for providing financial support for publishing this paper as well as other support for this endeavor.
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All the authors contributed immensely to sample collection, data analysis and writing of this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jan Precious A. Memuna M. Frederick A. Find articles by Shiloh Osae. Philip O. Find articles by Philip O. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received May 21; Accepted Jan 8.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: heavy metal, mining impact, integrated assessment, Tarkwa Municipality, risk perception, water quality, social issues, livelihood and economic issues, artisanal gold mining. Introduction The notion of sustainable development has given rise to various visions of the future of the world, possible trade-offs and of externalities [ 1 ].
The objectives of the present study are: To investigate and evaluate the water pollution in artisanal gold mining impacted communities in Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality. Materials and Methods 2. Open in a separate window.
Figure 1. The Geology of the Study Area The gold bearing ores in Ghana are obtained from the Birimian and the Tarkwaian rock system as shown in Figure 1 above [ 16 ]. The gold found in the three main types of auriferous deposits are: Reef, vein or lode-types gold deposits, defined as gold deposits found in quartz-veins but in a broader sense this refers to any gold bearing lode or dyke. Sampling Techniques, Collection of Water Samples and Laboratory Analysis Random sampling techniques were adopted in selecting 10 sampling points. Social Survey The household surveys were largely carried out by an enumeration of households within the study area which was carried out by resident enumerators REs and which lasted for six weeks.
Table 1 Socioeconomic and environmental variables of the perception study, showing questions asked and answers provided by the households. Female 51 Age 20—30 years 34 31—40 years Results and Discussion 3.